"SONG LAI PHAN XAC"

Trong Niem Tin Cua Giao Hoi

Christoph Schoenborn OP

C. Schoenborn, sanh nam 1945, t nam 1975 la Gs Tn Lyai Hoc Fribourg/Freiburg (Thuy S). Hoi vien Uy ban Than Hoc gia quoc te. Mi ay a c bo nhiem lam Giam muc phu ta Giao phan Wien Ao quoc). Bai dch trong: Internationale katholische Zeitschrift-Communio- 19 (1/1990) tr.13 - 29 Koeln-Paderborn).

Trong kinh Tin Knh chung ta van thng oc: "Toi tin xac loai ngi ngay sau song lai. "Th hoi, Giao Hoi muon cho tuyen xng g, khi oc cau nay? Sau ay chung toi se khong lu y ti nhng vu tranh luan Than hoc ma niem tin vao s song lai phan xac a at ra cho ly tr loai ngi, nhng se lu y ti mot iem can ban hn. o la co gang tm mot cho ng cho tn ieu nay trong toan bo c cau c tin Kito giao. c tin la mot tong hp lien i, trong o cac tn ieu phai c tm hieu trong tng quan lien i vi nhau, ch khong phai rieng re biet lap khoi nhau. Roi Quy v se thay, tn ieu tren ay co lien he sau xa va khang kht vi toan bo c tin en mc nao. Ch cai nhn toan dien ve c tin mi co the giup chung ta co c nhng cau tra li dt khoat cho ly tr va con tim ve nhng thac mac thuan ly cung nh tnh cam chong lai tn ieu nay.

Ngay t au, viec tuyen xng ve s song lai phan xac, hay noi cach khac, viec tuyen xng ke chet se song lai, von la nen tang cua c tin Kito giao. Ve iem nay, giao phu Tertuliano thi Giao Hoi s khai a phat bieu rat chnh xac qua mot cau Latinh ngan gon nh sau: Fiducia christianorum resurrectio mortuorum; illam credentes, sumus: Niem hy vong cua ngi kito at ni s viec ke chet song lai; chnh v tin nh the, ma chung ta mi la (kito-hu)." [1]

Niem tin vao s song lai phan xac a gay nen nhng phan ng chong oi ngay t au. Athen Thanh Phaolo a b nhao bang, khi Ngai mi bat au e cap ti s song lai (Cv 17,32). Lam sao than xac h nat lai co the song i i? Lam sao than xac o, mot khi a tan ra, van con co the hoi sinh? Can g than xac loai ngi phai bat t, khi tinh than va linh hon bat t cua ho a u lam cho ho khac vi nhng sinh vat khac va a danh cho ho co mot a v oc ton gia the gii sinh vat roi? Thanh Augustino cho biet: "Chang co ieu g trong c tin Kito giao ma lai b chong oi manh liet, dai dang, trng ky va say me nh la niem tin vao s song lai phan xac. Thc ra, cac triet gia ngoai giao cung a noi nhieu ti linh hon bat t. Trong nhieu cuon sach ho a nhac i nhac lai rang tinh than con ngi se bat t. The nhng, khi e cap ti s song lai phan xac, la ho khong ngan ngai phan oi cong khai ngay. iem trc tien ho phan oi, nh ho thng cho biet, o la than xac i nay khong the nao bay len ti tri c." [2]

Ly do chnh, neu khong muon noi la ly do duy nhat, tai sao, bat chap moi chong oi thng gap phai, ngi kito van xac tn rang xac se song lai, o la v chnh Chua Giesu Kito a song lai. Va neu chung ta tin rang, Chua Kito la "ang au tien t coi chet song lai" (Cv 26,23; xem: 1Cr 15,20-23), th niem tin vao s song lai phan xac the tat phai la mot phan cot yeu cua long tin chung ta co oi vi Ngai.

Tiep theo mot so iem co tnh cach triet ly can lu y tren ay, chung toi se ban ve s song lai cua Chua Kito nh la nen tang cua long tin vao s song lai phan xac, sau o se noi ti nhng ieu Giao Hoi day ve s song lai cua chung ta, cuoi cung se ban ve mot vai van e lien quan ti khoang thi gian trc khi chung ta song lai, nghia la "tnh trang i ch" gia thi Phuc Sinh va Tai giang (Quang lam, Parusia) cua Chua Giesu.

SONG LAI PHAN XAC - KE CHET SONG LAI

Mot so ngi i le thng xuyen chac se lay lam ngac nhien ve s thay oi trong ban dch cua kinh Tin Knh. Tai sao trong Phung Vu lai phai oi cau "xac... song lai" thanh "ke chet song lai"? Viec thay oi nay co bieu lo mot s de dat trc t ng "phan xac" hay khong? Co phai t "xac" nay qua nang ne, qua vat chat hay khong? Thc ra, viec thay oi trong cach dch nay cung hi la, v ban van kinh Tin Knh cua nhng the he xa xa rat minh bach ve iem nay: credo carnis resurrectionem. Ch trong ban thng c goi la "kinh Tin Knh dai", tc la ban tuyen tn cua Cong ong Nicea va Constantinop (symbolum Nicaeno-Constantinopolitanum), [3] mi oc thay s khac biet nh sau: "(Chung) toi tin ke chet song lai." Ca hai loi dien ta eu da theo nhng truyen thong rat lau i. [4] Hau het cac ban tuyen tn ong Phng eu dung loi dien ta, ma chung ta a thay trong ban tuyen tn Nicea-Constanstinop.

Trai lai cau "xac song lai" lai thuoc loai cong thc giao ly co nh trong lu truyen Roma va roi trong tat ca lu truyen Latinh va Hy-Lap ve sau. Trong Tan c khong co kieu noi "song lai phan xac", ma ch co kieu noi "ke chet song lai" (xem: Mt 22,31; Cv 17,32; 23,6; 24,21; 26,23; Rm 1,4; 1Cr 15,12.42; Dt 6,2). Kieu noi "song lai phan xac" bat nguon t moi trng Kinh thanh Do thai. Trong nen van chng Khai Huyen thay cung co quan niem sau ay: trong "ngay sau het," "tat ca nhng g co xng tht" eu se song lai. "Tat ca nhng g co xng tht" ay co le phai hieu la "moi ngi". "Tht" la thu tao dien oi dien vi Thien Chua, ang Tao Hoa cua mnh. Viec song lai cua tat ca nhng g co xng tht, minh chng rang Chua trung thanh vi thu tao cua Ngai. [5] Kieu noi "xac song lai" nh the a bac mot nhp cau gia viec sang tao va viec hoan tat sang tao. Niem tin vao s song lai c da tren niem hy vong: Chua khong bo be nhng se hoan tat viec sang tao cua Ngai. Nhng niem tin o con da tren mot ly do khac, khong the bo qua c, o la ngay phan xet, trc toa tham phan "tat ca nhng g co xng tht" eu phai tnh so vi Chua, ang Tao Hoa cua mnh.

Ca hai ly do neu tren eu co chung mot niem xac tn: Chua la ang sang tao va la ang hoan tat moi sang tao. Niem hy vong canh chung cua Do thai giao tin rang moi ngi se song lai "tap the", v "tat ca nhng g co xng tht" se song lai va se ra trc toa phan xet chung, trc mat Chua. Quan niem cho rang ca nhan tng ngi co the se song lai trc, la hoan toan xa la oi vi Do thai giao. [6] Quan niem nay rat quan trong, e co the hieu c niem tin song lai Kito giao. Qua the, niem hy vong "tat ca nhng g co xng tht" se song lai tap the au co g la phi ly oi vi Canh chung hoc Kito giao, v nh chung ta se thay, khong c phep tach biet s song lai phan xac vi s song lai cua Chua Giesu: ca hai eu lam nen mot bien co duy nhat trong thi sau het.

Neu "tat ca nhng g co xng tht" trc het co y ch "tat ca moi loai thu tao", th trong o a co goi ghem t tng: chang co g c Thien Chua tao dng ma co the thoat khoi chng trnh cu o va phan xet cua Ngai, ke ca "xng tht nay" ma chung ta ang ganh vac, ngha la chnh than xac chung ta. Do o, s "song lai phan xac" lai m ra mot loi nhn mi, lam cho nhng cuoc tranh luan se bung len theo: o la sau khi song lai, than xac cu the va thc te se nh the nao. Loi nhn nay hien nhien thuoc niem hy vong song lai cua Do thai giao, rat tieu bieu trong gii Pharisieu thi Chua Giesu. Nh the, cau "ke chet song lai" luon luon co y noi rat cu the la s song lai than xac t trong mo ma. Ngay t giay phut au, bien co phuc sinh tai Gierusalem, a c dien ta bang t ng "song lai"; ieu do chng to mot mat: s song lai cua "tat ca nhng g co xng tht" vao thi sau het a bat au t bien co ay, mat khac cung chng to: s kien nay co mot tam kch cu the ve phan xac. Neu ngoi mo khong trong, ngi ta a khong the noi ve s "song lai" cua Chua Giesu. Kurt Schuber, mot nha Do thai hoc noi tieng Wien a viet ve moi lien he nay nh sau: "Tin mng Chua Giesu song lai a khong the nao keo dai qua mot ngay tai Gierusalem, neu khong chng minh c la ngoi mo o trong, ma ngoi mo o phai c moi ngi cong nhan la ngoi mo that cua chnh Chua Giesu... oi vi d luan quan chung tai Gierusalem, Tin Mng Chua Giesu song lai se dt khoat b bac bo, neu ho chng minh c rang, than xac Chua Giesu a thoi ra ra tai mot ngoi mo nao o. Nhng ai rao giang Tin Mng Chua song lai a tr thanh cai bia che dieu cua quan chung, s kien thc tai, tc la ngoi mo trong cua Chua Giesu, khong ng ve pha ho." [7]

Niem tin vao s song lai phan xac ngay sau het, vi xng tht va tap the cung moi ngi, co lien quan mat thiet vi niem xac tn c dien ta minh bach ve mot "tnh trang gia", ve mot thi ky ch i, ma y nghia cua thi ky o mi ch la cai khung kha ro ret nh anh sang mac khai Chua Giesu Kito. Khong phai t thi Kito giao, ma la ngay t thi Do thai giao a co niem xac tn rang "khoang thi gian gia" nay la e tach biet than xac vi linh hon. [8] Cuoi thi ky nay, cung goi la thi ky cuoi cung, la thi ky "ke chet song lai", bao gom ca s "song lai phan xac". S song lai nay co mau mc, can nguyen va co the noi co ca cho ng na, trong s song lai cua Chua Giesu Kito.

S SONG LAI CUA CHUA GIESU VA S SONG LAI CUA CHUNG TA

"Tai sao mot so trong anh em co the qua quyet rang: 'Lam g co ke chet song lai'? Neu khong co ke chet song lai, th c Kito cung a khong song lai. Ma neu c Kito khong song lai, th li giang day cua chung toi se vo gia tr, va c tin cua anh em cung vo gia tr... Nhng c Kito a song lai thc s nh la ang khi au trong so nhng ke a yen ngh" (1Cr 15,12-14.20). Chung ta khong biet, nhng ngi Corinto a theo quan niem nao, en noi Thanh Phaolo phai sa sai nh the. Co phai ho theo mot th "tam linh hoa" cua chu thuyet Duy Tr (Gnosticisme) [9] ve s song lai khong? Hay viec phu nhan s song lai o a bat nguon t quan niem nhan sinh a b Hy-hoa (Hellenise) i roi? ieu quan trong la Thanh Phaolo a tao ra mot the gong km chat che gia s song lai (hay la s phuc sinh) cua Chua Giesu va s song lai cua chung ta. Ch ni Chua Kito chung ta mi biet c, s song lai cua chung ta nh the nao va se nh the nao.

Niem hy vong song lai chac chan a co trc thi Chua Kito giang sinh. Lan au tien thay noi ti niem hy vong nay cach ro rang trong sach anien (12,2) va sach Macabe, quyen th 2 (7,9.11.13.23.29). Phai Pharisieu va mot so nhng ngi ong thi vi Chua Giesu cung tin rang ke chet se song lai (xem: Cv 23,6; Ga 11,24). Chnh Chua Giesu cung day rat ro rang va dt khoat (xem: Mc 12,18-27). S song lai c mong i vao "ngay sau het"

(Ga 6,40), va se i oi vi ngay phan xet (xem: Ga 5,25-29). Chua Giesu a lam cho ke chet song lai (xem: Mc 5,21-42; Lc 7,11-17; Ga 11), cung nh cac tien tri i trc Ngai (xem: 2 Vua 4,8-37). Phep la nay chac chan la dau ch quyen nang cua Chua Giesu, ong thi cung tien bao ve viec ke chet se song lai, nhng cha phai la chnh s song lai thc, v nhng ke c Chua cho song lai nh the, th ch tr lai i song tran gian va roi ho se con chet na.

Co mot cai g rat mi la trong nhng li tiet lo b nhiem cua Chua Giesu ve s au kho va s song lai sap ti cua Con Ngi. Phuc Am Nhat lam cho biet, Chua Giesu a tien bao ba lan ve cuoc t nan va ve s phuc sinh tiep theo sau o (Mc 8,31-33; 9,30-32; 10,32-34 ss). Khong co ly do g chnh ang, e at lai van e xem nhng li tien tri nay co phai thc s la li cua Chua hay khong; [10] v chung qua mi la oi vi quan niem va niem mong i cua nhng ngi song vao thi ai o, qua mi la en o khong the cho rang chung co the vay mn t mot khuon mau Do thai giao; ang khac chung lai an khp vi tat ca nhng g Chua Giesu a mac khai qua c ch, viec lam va li noi cua Ngai, an khp ti o mang u ly chng e co the coi chung nh la tieng vong (echo) trung thc cua giao huan chnh Chua Giesu. [11]

Chung ta phai co gang lam sang to tam quan trong khon lng cua nhng li tren ay. Trong khi rao giang Chua Giesu a dan dan mac khai chnh Ngai la ang Messia, la Con Ngi tren tri va la Con Thien Chua, song song vi li mac khai moi ngay mot them sang to ve con ng kho nan trc mat va s phuc sinh cua Ngai qua con ng au kho o. Li rao giang ve Nc Chua sap en, nhng thc ra cung a khai mac, co lien he mat thiet vi li mac khai song oi (t nan va phuc sinh) nay. Chua Giesu rao giang rang thi ai canh chung a khai mac; trong thi o Thien Chua se vieng tham dan Ngai, se tai lap Israel, se khai sinh mot vng quoc bnh an va cong chnh. Nhng Nc Chua en trong mot cach thc khac vi long mong i. Chnh Ngai la trung tam iem cua nc nay, do o Nc Chua cung ch se en qua s mang cua Ngai, nghia la qua cai chet cua Ngai thay "cho nhieu ngi" (Mc 10,45) va qua s phuc sinh cua Ngai. V the, thai o oi vi Chua Giesu se lam tieu chuan e phan nh xem co c vao Nc Chua hay khong. Ch nhng ai i vi Ngai, vac thanh gia theo Ngai va qua o tuyen xng Ngai, th mi en c vi Ngai ma thoi (xem: Mc 8,34-38). [12]

Trong cac Phuc Am chung ta cung thay rat thc te, khi cac Tong o ang thng a khong hieu noi Tin Mng Chua Giesu va viec the hien Tin Mng o. Thc ra, ngay t au Chua Giesu a cho thay trc moi lien he nay, [13] nhng cac ngai ch hieu thau sau khi Thanh Phero a tuyen xng Cesarea Philippi rang: Chua Giesu la ang Messia, la Con Thien Chua (Mc 8,29; Mt 16,16).  [14] Chnh luc v thu lanh trong nhom 12 c Chua Giesu la chon, nh Thien Chua linh ng (xem: Mt 16,17), a long trong tuyen xng ban tnh Chua Giesu, th Chua mi bat au khai tam cho ho hieu rang: "Con Ngi nhat thiet phai chu nhieu au kho, b Ky lao, Thng te va Ky luc khai tr, b giet chet va ba ngay sau se song lai" (Mc 8,31). ieu "nhat thiet" nay khong phai la chuyen cng bach ngoai tai, cung khong phai la so phan mu quang, nhng la ke hoach cu o cua Thien Chua. Ke hoach o "nhat thiet" phai c thc hien qua con ng nay. oi vi cac Tong o "ieu ma Chua coi la can thiet" nay la chuyen hoan toan khong the hieu noi. Thay v la ang xay dng vng quoc an bnh, la ang em lai mot thi hanh phuc, ang Messia lai phai chu au kho, o la ieu rat trai ngc vi ky vong cua cac ngai. Cha he co mot li nao oc a cho bang li Chua Giesu a sa sai Phero, khi ong muon ngan can Chua tren con ng au kho: "o Satan, hay lui ra sau lng Ta! V ngi chang hieu chuyen Thien Chua, ma ch hieu chuyen the gian" (Mc 8,33).

Tai sao ieu Chua Giesu tien bao ve viec phuc sinh cua Ngai a lam cho cac Tong o khong hieu noi? " Cac ngai nh ky li nay va noi vi nhau: song lai t coi chet nghia la g? (Mc 9,10). Tai sao sau khi Chua Giesu song lai van phai can mot thi gian dai, cac ngai mi co the tin vao s kien nay cach vng chac (xem: Mt 28,17; Mc 16,14; Lc 24,38)? Co mot ly do khong the coi thng: co le la v niem tin pho cap thi o hieu rang ke chet ch song lai vao ngay sau het va s song lai khong the xay ra cho tng ca nhan mot nhng la cho ca tap the loai ngi. S phuc sinh cua Chua Giesu"hien nhien khong phai la s tr lai i song tran gian, nhng la s song lai sau het" co y ngha g trong khung canh cua niem tin pho cap nay? ay khong phai la chuyen n thuan tiep tuc song mai sau khi chet, nh ngi ta thng mong i ni cac linh hon qua co, nhng la s song lai thc s cua than xac (xem: Lc 24,39); v mo trong thc, nhng cung khong phai la xac chet tnh day, nh phep la Chua Giesu a lam cho ke chet song lai. Viec ngi ta goi s kien nay la song lai hay phuc sinh, chng to cac Tong o a thay s kien nay - nh Chua Giesu a tien bao trc va nh s gap g Ngai sau khi phuc sinh - co lien quan vi s song lai chung cua moi ke chet trong thi canh chung. Nhng viec Chua Giesu, ang Kito, a phuc sinh rieng le nh the co y ngha g?

Qua cau hoi nay chung ta ang ban ti iem nong cot cua quan niem "song lai phan xac" theo Kito giao: Chua Kito khong song lai rieng le. S song lai cua Ngai la khi iem, la nguyen nhan, hay mot cach nao o, a the hien s song lai chung cua moi ngi qua co. S song lai chung vao thi sau het khong phai la mot s kien khac han, biet lap vi s phuc sinh cua Chua Giesu, nhng lien he mat thiet vi s phuc sinh cua Ngai. Ngay sau het a khi au. Cai chet cua Chua Giesu Kito la "ngay gi" khai sinh vng quoc cua Chua. V vng quoc o a xuat hien, nen thi canh chung cung a bat au. Viec sang tao mi a khi au vao buoi sang phuc sinh.

Giao huan cua cac Tong o cung a nhac ti bang nhieu cach khac nhau. Th du Thanh Phaolo: "Nhng khong! c Kito a choi day t coi chet, m ng cho nhng ai a an giac ngan thu. V neu tai mot ngi ma nhan loai phai chet, th cung nh mot ngi ma ke chet c song lai. Qua the, nh moi ngi v lien i vi Aam ma phai chet, th moi ngi, nh lien i vi c Kito, cung c Thien Chua cho song. Nhng moi ngi theo th tu cua mnh: m ng la c Kito, roi khi c Kito quang lam th en lt nhng ke thuoc ve Ngi. Sau o moi s eu hoan tat, khi Ngi a tieu diet het moi quyen bnh, moi sc thong tr va moi the lc, roi trao vng quyen lai cho Thien Chua la Cha" (1Cr 15,20-24). Nh the Chua Kito la "Trng t trong so nhng ngi t coi chet song lai"! (Col 1,18). S song lai chung cho moi ngi qua co a khi au qua s phuc sinh cua Ngai. S song lai nay se c the hien cong khai va tron hao trong ngay Ngai quang lam. S phuc sinh cua Chua Giesu khong phai la mot s kien biet lap, cung nh cai chet cua Ngai tren thap gia khong phai la so phan ham hiu rieng le. Ca hai s kien eu la nhng thi iem chung quyet cua lch s: "Tan cung cua cac thi ai a en cung chung ta" (xem: 1Cr 10.11) va s oi mi the gii cung a co nen tang vnh vien. [15] Ch khi biet nhn ve cac s kien phuc sinh vi mot nhan quan nh the, chung ta mi co the hieu c mot so ac net cua niem mong i song lai theo Kito giao, trc het la van e "mong i Chua gan en" [16] van thng c em ra tranh luan, roi tiep o la quan niem cho rang chung ta a c phuc sinh vi Chua Kito va cuoi cung la niem mong i xem ra co ve mau thuan vi niem mong i tren, tc la chung se con phuc sinh trong ngay Chua Giesu quang lam.

S SONG LAI CHUNG CUA NHNG KE A QUA I

Van e "mong i Chua sap en"

Neu Chua Kito a song lai, th s song lai chung cua moi ke qua co cung a khi au. Nhng con bao lau na viec ay mi c cong khai hoa? Thanh Phaolo va cung vi Ngai tat ca Giao Hoi s khai eu a mong ch, la ho se c thay Chua Kito tai giang ngay tren mat at nay. Nhng "mot so a an ngh" (1Cr 15,6). Chuyen g se xay ra cho nhng ngi ay? Trong bc th co nhat, Thanh Tong o a an ui giao oan Thexalonika nh sau: "Tha anh em, ve nhng ai a an giac ngan thu, chung toi khong muon e anh en chang hay biet g, hau anh em khoi buon phien nh nhng ngi khac, la nhng ngi khong co niem hy vong. V neu chung ta tin rang c Giesu a chet va a song lai, th chung ta cung tin rang nhng ngi a an giac trong c Giesu, se c Thien Chua a ve cung c Giesu. Da vao li cua Chua, chung toi noi vi anh em ieu nay, la chung ta, nhng ngi ang song, nhng ngi con lai vao ngay Chua quang lam, chung ta se chang i trc nhng ngi a an giac ngan thu au. V khi hieu lenh ban ra, khi tieng tong lanh thien than va tieng ken cua Thien Chua vang len, th chnh Chua se t tri ng xuong, va nhng ngi a chet trong c Kito se song lai trc tien; roi en chung ta, la nhng ngi ang song, nhng ngi con lai, chung ta se c em i tren am may cung vi ho, e nghenh on Chua tren khong trung. Nh the, chung ta se c cung Chua mai mai"(1Tx 4.13-17).

Nh s song lai cua Chua Giesu ma nhng ke a qua i va nhng ke con sot lai tren mat at se hp nhat lai, luc Ngai tai giang. Thanh Phaolo noi vi nhng giao hu Corinto rang: "ay toi noi cho anh em biet mau nhiem nay: khong phai tat ca chung ta se chet, nhng tat ca chung ta se c bien oi trong mot giay lat, trong mot nhay mat, khi tieng ken cuoi cung vang len. V tieng ken se vang len, va nhng ke chet se choi day ma khong con h nat; con chung ta, chung ta se c bien oi. Qua vay, cai than se h nat nay phai mac lay s bat diet; va cai than se chet nay phai mac lay s bat t" (1Cr 15,51-53).

Sau o, luc v Tong o ngoi tu, ngai con nham tnh rang, rat co the ngai se phai chet, trc khi Chua Kito tr lai. Trong hoan canh o, hnh nh cai chet oi vi ngai la ieu m c, v ngai mong moi c gan c Kito. "Toi hoan toan vng tin: bay gi cung nh moi luc c Kito se to bay quyen uy cao ca cua Ngi ni than xac toi, du toi song hay toi chet; v oi vi toi, song la c Kito va chet la mot moi li. Neu song i nay ma cong viec cua toi c sinh hoa ket qua, th toi khong biet phai chon ang nao. V toi b giang co gia hai ang: ao c cua toi la ra i e c vi c Kito, ieu nay tot hn boi phan; nhng lai i nay th can thiet hn v anh em" (Phil 1,20-24).

Viec ngay quang lam cua Chua b tr hoan a khong lam cho Giao Hoi s khai b xao tron nang ne, o la mot ieu la. Co mot loi giai thch kha hp ly ve van e nay nh sau: Giao hu thi s khai a tin vao c Kito khong phai nh la mot ang se tai giang, nhng la mot ang ang hien dien. c Kito tr thanh trong tam cua niem tin va niem hy vong Kito giao. [17] Trc bien co phuc sinh c Kito a noi ket nhng mon e ma Ngai a chon (xem: Mc 3,13) vi chnh Ngai, "e ho cung vi Ngai va e Ngai sai ho i rao giang" (Mc 3,14). Ho thuoc ve Ngai (xem: Lc 22,56-59) va Ngai vi ho, bat kha phan ly: "Ai nghe cac con la nghe Ta" (Lc 10,16). S lien he khang kht nay khong cham dt qua viec phuc sinh, nhng mang mot y ngha va sc song va mi va pho quat (universel): "Nay, Ta cung cac con moi ngay cho en tan the" (Mt 28,20). Thanh Phaolo cung co c niem xac tn bach thang nay, en noi chang con g co the ly gian chung ta khoi tnh yeu c Kito (Rm 8,35.39).

ieu hien thc choi chang bao trum tat ca chnh la c--ben-c-Kito, hay ung hn: c--trong-c Kito, nh Thanh Phaolo van thng noi ti. V chung ta trong c Kito, nen: "Chung ta co song la song cho Chua, ma co chet cung la chet cho Chua. Vay, du song du chet, chung ta van thuoc ve Chua; v c Kito a chet va song lai, chnh la e lam Chua ke song cung nh ke chet" (Rom 14,8-9). Loi nhn nay giup chung ta de hieu, tai sao s song lai khong phai ch co the noi th tng lai ma con co the noi ca th hien tai.

"SONG LAI VI C KITO"

Thanh Phaolo day rang: Qua b tch Thanh Tay chung ta a cung chet vi c Kito, "e nh c Kito, nh vinh quang cua c Chua Cha ma c song lai t coi chet, th chung ta cung ang hanh trnh trong cuoc song mi" (Rm 6,4). Nhng ngi a c ra toi, phai coi nh mnh a chet cho toi loi, e "song cho Chua trong c Kito" (Rm 6,11). i song mi chnh la -ben- c-Kito, ang a song lai. "Cho nen, pham ai ket hp vi c Kito, eu la tho tao mi. Cai cu a qua, va cai mi a co ay roi" (2Cr 5,17). Thanh Phaolo con i xa hn na, khi ngai coi nhng ke a c ra toi nh la nhng ke a c song lai vi c Kito: "Anh em a c choi day vi c Kito, nen anh em hay tm kiem nhng g thuoc thng gii, ni c Kito ang ng ben hu Thien Chua" (Cl 3,1). Hoac ro hn: "nen dau chung ta a chet v sa nga, Ngi cung a cho chung ta c cung song vi c Kito tren tri. Chnh do an sung ma anh em c cu o" (Ep 2,5-6). [18] i song mi vi c Kito a lam cho c thong phan song lai vi Ngai ngay t bay gi. Nhng chan ly nay cha c mac khai hoan toan: "Anh em a chet va s song mi cua anh em hien ang tiem tang vi c Kito ni Thien Chua. Khi c Kito, nguon song cua chung ta, xuat hien, anh em se c xuat hien vi Ngi va cung Ngi hng phuc vinh quang" (Cl 3,3-4; xem: 1Ga 3,2).

V Kito hu co nghia la -ben-c-Kito, nen ni nao co Chua Kito ng tr, ni o cung la que hng cua ngi kito: "Que hng cua chung ta tren tri, t ni o chung ta mong i ang cu o chung ta, Chua Giesu Kito, se en" (Pl 3,20). V the, thi gian hien hu tren tran gian la thi gian hanh hng, [19] con "xa que nha": "Vay chung toi luon manh dan, va chung toi biet rang: lai trong than xac nay la song la xa Chua, v chung ta song trong t the cua ngi tin, ch khong phai cua ngi c thay Chua nhan tien. Vay chung toi luon manh dan va ieu chung toi thch hn, o la la bo than xac e c ben Chua" (2Cr 5,6-8).

Ngay t bay gi chung ta a ang song "trong c Kito", nhng khi "can leu tai the nay c nho len" (2Cr 5,1), tc la khi chung ta nh s chet ma c "thoat ly" (Pl 1,23) coi song trong "than xac" (Pl 1,22), th chung ta se c "ve que vi Chua". Nh the, viec -ben-c-Kito cua chung ta van cha hoan thanh. Ch khi nao tai giang, "Ngi co quyen nang khac phuc muon loai, va se dung quyen nang ay ma bien oi than xac yeu hen cua chung ta nen giong than xac vinh hien cua Ngi" (Pl 3,21).

Nh the chung ta co the nam vng ket luan sau ay: La Kito hu co nghia la -ben-c-Kito. Tuy nhien, ve iem nay co ba trnh o nh sau: 1) "Hien hu 'trong-c-Kito' qua than xac pham hen; 2) c d phan thong hiep vi c Kito ('trong c Kito') trong tnh trang i ch, mot mat a c giai phong khoi than xac pham hen, nhng mat khac van cha c mac lay than xac cua tri cao; 3) nen ven toan nh on nhan than xac cua tri cao." [20]

"KE CHET SONG LAI NH THE NAO ?"

"Nhng", co ngi thac mac hoi rang, "ke chet se song lai nh the nao? Ho tr ve vi than xac nao ay?" (1Cr 15,35). Co le nhieu ngi kho tin vao s song lai phan xac la v cung kho tng tng c s song lai sau nay se ra sao. Giao huan cua Giao Hoi day rang: vao thi cuoi cung tat ca moi ngi se song lai vi than xac ma ho ang co tren tran gian. [21] Nhng gia than xac tren tran gian va than xac se song lai co iem ong nhat nao? Hay nhn vao s song lai cua Chua Giesu ma i tm chan ly cho s song lai cua chung ta. D nhien gia s song lai cua Ngai va s song lai cua chung ta van con mau nhiem sau tham cua c tin. Tuy nhien, than xac song lai cua Chua la mot thc the thay c va s c trc mat cac chng nhan. Qua thc trang song lai cua Ngai ma chung ta co the mng tng c s song lai cua chung ta.

a), iem au tien chung ta can phai noi ve s song lai cua chung ta la: can phai phan biet ro rang gia cai chet va s song lai. Gia cai chet va s song lai cua Chua la ngay Th Sau tuan thanh nhiem mau, o la viec tang xac Chua trong mo va viec Chua "xuong nguc To tong". Chua a song lai t trong mo. Do o cung vi c tin co the toan quyen khang nh rang: s song lai a xay ra trong coi chet. Quan niem cho rang s song lai a xay ra ngay luc mi chet se ung au vi s that nen tang ve viec tang xac Chua va "s song lai vao ngay th ba". Giao huan co knh nhat cua Giao Hoi a nhan manh ti th t nay (chet - mai tang - song lai; xem: 1Cr 15,3-4), phu hp vi dien tien lch s cua cac s kien. e chong lai khuynh hng tam linh hoa cua thuyet Duy Tr (Gnose) [22] cho rang, "song lai" la linh hon bay len vi Chua, con than xac lai, Thanh Ireneo thanh Lyon a nhac en thc tai s song lai cua Chua nh la hnh anh nguyen thuy s song lai mai nay cua chung ta; thanh nhan viet nh sau:

"Neu Chua 'tien vao gia bong toi s chet', la ni cac linh hon qua co c ngu, th trc o Ngai a song lai phan xac, va sau khi song lai a c vinh thang; va neu v cac mon e cua mnh ma Chua lam nh the th hien nhien la linh hon cua cac mon e Ngai, cung se en mot ni vo hnh nao o, a c Thien Chua nh san cho ho, va ho se o ma ch i cho ti khi song lai. Roi ho se song lai, nhan lai than xac mnh, nghia la song lai phan xac, nh Chua a song lai, e chiem ngng dung nhan Thien Chua." [23]

b) iem th hai cung minh bach ni s song lai cua Chua Giesu: Than xac song lai va than xac tran gian la mot. Cac bai tng thuat trong Phuc Am nhan manh ti iem ong nhat nay rat ro rang. S ong nhat cua ang hien ra c minh chng qua than xac: "Sao cac con lai hoang hot, sao long cac con lai sinh nghi? Hay nhn tay Ta va chan Ta, e nhan ro chnh la Ta ay!" (Lc 24,38-39). Cac vet thng cung chng minh chac chan, ang cac Tong o trong thay la ai (xem: Ga 20,24-29). Cac c ch than xac co tac dung nh la nhng dau ch nhan dien (xem: Lc 24,30-31.35) Maria thanh Magala [24] nhan ra Chua Giesu qua giong noi bat bien cua Ngai (Ga 20,16). Trong khi giang, cac Tong o cung thng nhac ti viec a cung an cung uong vi Chua sau khi Ngai song lai nh mot bang chng chng minh thc trang song lai (xem: Cv 10,41). Tat ca nhng ieu o chng minh s that tha cua cac nhan chng Chua song lai, la Ngai a song lai va song mai "vi chnh than xac cua Ngai", nh than xac o ma Maria a on tiep c Ngai va cung qua than xac o ma Ngai a chung song vi nhng nhan chng cua Ngai.

c) iem th ba: qua s song lai cua Chua ma chung ta biet c ve s song lai cua chung ta, o la cai "hoan toan khac" cua cung mot than xac sau khi a song lai. Nhng hnh anh quen thuoc: khong nhan ra ("oi mat b can tr, lam ho khong nhan ra c Ngai" Lc 24,16); khong le thuoc khong gian (xem: Ga 20,21; Lc 24,31); s gan gui nhiem mau ma van xa la (xem: Ga 21). Can c vao c Kito ma Thanh Phaolo a goi o la "than xac than kh", thay cho "than xac vat ly". Than xac tran the la than xac "co hon", con than xac song lai la than xac "co than", hoan toan tham nhap bi Thanh Linh. S "than kh hoa" nay khong the lan lon vi "tam linh hoa" theo quan niem Duy Tr c. Than xac ch thc nay cua toi se c song lai nh Thanh Linh, c "ay tran" Thanh Linh. "Neu Than Kh ng trong anh em, Than Kh cua ang a lam cho c Giesu song lai t coi chet, th ang a lam cho c Kito song lai t coi chet, cung se dung Than Kh cua Ngi ang ng tong anh em, ma lam cho than xac phai chet cua anh em c s song mi" (Rm 8,11).

Nhng lam sao phan than xac vat chat, tran tuc, tam b nay lai co the song vnh cu c? Nhom Duy Tr vao the ky th hai rat a trng dan li Thanh Phaolo, va coi o nh la mot trong nhng ly chng quan trong nhat cho quan niem "tam linh hoa" cua ho ve s song lai: "Xac tht khong the tha hng c Nc Thien Chua, cung nh cai huy hoai khong the tha hmg c cai bat huy" (1Cr 15,50). [25] Nhng li le o co ve loai han s song lai phan xac cua mot ngi cu the "bang tht bang mau" ra ngoai. Sau cai ly chng rut ra t Kinh Thanh o, co tiem tang niem xac tn cua thuyet Duy Tr nh sau: Tren nguyen tac, neu ch co chat the ma thoi, th chat the khong co kha nang "lanh nhan s cu o". No t gii han chnh mnh va khong the vt qua ngng ca e vao i sau. Con ng en o buoc phai gia t chat the. Trai lai, niem tin vao s song lai ve phan xac lai co lien he mat thiet vi s khang nh: chat the cung la thu tao tot lanh cua Chua, chat the co the la "ke ganh vac" than kh sinh ong. Trong cuoc tranh luan vi thuyet Duy Tr, Thanh Ireneo a a ra mot ly chng rat gia tr, e chong lai loi nhn "han hep" ve chat the. ieu ang lu y la cung co nhng chat the sinh ong, nh tat ca nhng g co s song eu chng minh ro rang ieu o. Chat the o sinh ong la v no tiep nhan c s song. Nh the, "xng tht" cung on nhan c s song: "Neu s song hien tai yeu hn s song vnh cu gap boi ma con u kha nang lam hoi sinh c nhng chi the de chet, the th tai sao s song vnh cu co kha nang nhieu hn gap boi, lai khong the lam hoi sinh c than xac nay von a tap va cung a quen mang s song trong mnh?". [26]

d) Nhng chung ta van con thac mac cha ro song lai phan xac se nh the nao ay. Mot lan na neu can c vao Chua Giesu Kito, chung ta co the noi c rang: Neu Chua Giesu la Li vnh cu cua c Chua Cha, a mac lay xac pham, th than xac de chet cua chung ta cung co the on nhan c Li Chua va Than Kh cua Ngai. Thc trang Chua xuong lam ngi la li bao am chac chan nhat cho s song lai ch thc phan xac. "Chua trong xac pham" la li oan ha, xac pham cung se song trong Chua. Nh the, khong phai luc Chua Giesu song lai mi la luc khi iem cho s song lai cua chung ta mai sau, nhng thc ra ngay t khi Con Thien Chua xuong lam ngi, nh Ngai mac lay xac pham de chet cua chung ta, ma xac pham o a c tr nen "phan gia nghiep cua Chua". Thanh Ireneo con noi them: "Tuy than xac t mnh khong the tha hng c Nc Tri, nhng hien nhien nh Than Kh ma c tha hng Nc Tri. [27]

Niem tin vao s song lai phan xac bat nguon t Chua Giesu Kito, la Li Chua a mac lay xac pham, a t nan, a c mai tang va a phuc sinh. V the, niem tin vao s song lai phan xac cung song ong nh la c tin vao chnh Chua Giesu Kito: "Neu c Kito khong song lai, th c tin cua anh em se thanh rong tuyech, ma anh em cung van con trong toi loi" (1Cr 15,17).

c tin la mot c the toan ven. Khi mot chi the b yeu, sm muon g cac chi the khac cung se b mat sc theo. Niem tin vao s song lai phan xac cuoi cung roi cung le thuoc vao e nhat tn ieu chi phoi cac tn ieu khac, o la: Thien Chua sang tao tat ca moi loai, vo hnh cung nh hu hnh. Niem tin vao s song lai phan xac at nen tang tren niem tin: tat ca nhng g hien hu, du tinh than hay la chat the, eu do Chua tao nen va eu va y Ngai, do o, khong co mot tac pham nao cua Ngai se thanh uong cong. Neu Chua sang tao moi loai e lam sang danh Ngai, th than xac toi ay cung c ch nh rao truyen vinh quang Ngai. Nen than hoc cua Thanh Ireneo vao thi Giao Hoi s khai, cung a nhan manh ti moi lien he nay. Tin vao Chua Sang Tao la ieu kien e tin vao ke chet song lai:

"Ai ch e y ti s bat lc cua than xac, ma khong lu tam ti sc manh cua ang lam cho ke chet song lai, la kinh thng quyen nang Thien Chua... V neu Thien Chua khong lam cho cai a chet song lai c, khong dan cai huy hoai ti cai bat hoai c, th Ngai au con la toan nang. V Ngai toan nang trong moi viec, nen chung ta phai hoc nhan biet ngay t nguon goc chung ta, khi Ngai dung bun at ma dng nen loai ngi. T h vo... ma dng nen mot ngi... con kho hn va phi ly hn... la dng nen mot ngi a co san, b tan bien trong long at... roi lai c tai tao nh mi". [28]

GIA CHET VA SONG LAI

Tn ieu song lai phan xac co lien quan mat thiet vi tn ieu ve Giao Hoi. Trong mot ban Tuyen Tn (Credo) Ai Cap co xa thay co cau: "Toi tin... c Chua Thanh Than va tin s song lai phan xac trong Hoi Thanh Cong giao."  [29] G. Kretschmar a bnh luan ve cau o nh sau: "Song lai phan xac trong Hoi Thanh" co ngha la "li bao am cu roi ro ret, la niem hy vong cua dan Chua: nhng g a khi s trong Hoi Thanh hom nay, cung se c hoan tat trong s song lai sau nay ". [30]

Viec Chua Giesu song lai a khai mao cho s song lai chung cua moi ngi. c Kito la "trng t" cua nhng ke song lai t coi chet. T ngay o "quyen nang song lai cua Ngai" (Pl 3,19) van con tiep tuc hoat ong. Quyen nang nay se tac ong vien man trong ngay c Kito tr lai va ngay song lai tap the. Tuy trong thi gian ch i quyen nang o van hoat ong nh Thanh Linh, "la ang tiep tuc cong trnh c Kito tran gian va hoan tat moi viec thanh hoa". [31] Thi gian ch i nay la thi gian Giao Hoi tren ng hanh hng. Trong Canh Chung hoc, giao huan ve nhng s sau cung, thay co nhac ti tnh trang i ch la tnh trang cua loai ngi gia s chet va s song lai. Ngi ta a tranh luan rat nhieu ve tnh trang i ch nay. [32] ac biet giao huan ve anima separata, tc ve linh hon la khoi xac, a gay nen s chong oi dai dang la thng. Nhan danh s hp-nhat-xac-hon ni con ngi, co ngi a chu trng bo han y niem ve mot linh hon, do viec xac la khoi hon hay hon la khoi xac, b coi la "tan d cua Platon", b coi la "ngoai Kinh Thanh"; ve iem nay ngi ta thng b lam lac khi da vao Thanh Thoma Aquino. [33] Mi ay lai thay bat au viec "tai kham pha linh hon" trc tien trong Triet hoc, [34] roi sau o cung lan sang Than hoc, [35] du mi la nhng bc do dam gan nh con lung tung. [36]

Giao huan cong giao co ien cung day rang cai chet se tach biet linh hon ra khoi xac. Linh hon bat t khong co xac se tam dung trong mot "tnh trang i ch", tnh trang nay van con ngan cach khong e linh hon hp nhat vi than xac, cho ti ngay ke chet song lai tap the. Phai mat mot thi gian kha lau, giao huan cua Giao Hoi ve "tnh tranh i ch" mi co c mot cai khung ro rang. Ro rang nhat la trong Tong hien Benedictus Deus (Benedicto XII, 1334): chung ta thay c dien ta nh sau:

"Linh hon cua tat ca cac Thanh... a, ang va se len tri roi vao Thien ang, ngay sau khi cac ngai qua i hay la sau khi ca nhan a c thanh luyen, neu can; va nh the ngay ca trc khi linh hon tai hp vi than xac cac ngai, cung nh ngay ca trc khi bien co phan xet chung xay en, nhng la sau khi Chua Giesu Kito, Chua chung ta a ve tri. Sau cuoc kho nan va cai chet cua Chua Giesu Kito, Chua chung ta, cac ngai a va ang trc tiep chiem ngam Thien tnh dien oi dien... Trong s chiem ngam nay cac ngai se c thng thc no ay Thien tnh. Nh s chiem ngng va thng thc nay, linh hon nhng ke a chet se c hanh phuc ch thc v c song va an ngh muon i... S chiem ngng va thng thc nay ton tai khong gian oan, khong giam suy va keo dai cho ti ngay phan xet va t o cho en muon i". [37]

e tiep tuc co gang tra li cho cau hoi nay, chung toi xin tr lai cong thc Tuyen Tin (Credo) co ien va noi tren: "Toi tin... s song lai phan xac trong Hoi Thanh Cong giao". Y nghia cua "s song lai ngay sau het" se khai m cho chung ta mot loi nhn mi, neu chung ta khong quan sat s song lai mot cach biet lap, nhng la trong tng quan vi mau nhiem Giao Hoi.

Gia nhng ngi l hanh trong c tin va nhng ke a an ngh trong Chua co iem g chung nhau? Tha, co hai: Chung ta cung thuoc mot Giao Hoi va cung cha c song lai ve phan xac. Tat ca nhng ngi cung tin vao c Kito va cung co Than Kh cua Ngai tao thanh mot Giao Hoi, du la ang hanh hng tren tran the hay la a ly tran, du la ang c thanh luyen hay la a c vinh hien va chiem ngam to tng Ba Ngoi. [38]

Giao Hoi duy nhat tren tri cung nh di the eu co mot iem chung, o la cac phan t cua Giao Hoi nay (tr c Trinh N Maia) cha c hng vinh quang do viec song lai phan xac. Quyen nang song lai cua c Kito a hoat ong trong ca ba tnh trang vi nhng mc o khac nhau. Ngay trong cuoc song tren tran gian mau chet nay, s song lai cua c Kito cung a anh hng t nhieu ti s bien hnh cua than xac chung ta, nh a xay ra nhan tien ni nhieu v Thanh. Tnh cach don mong cua s song phan xac nhac nh cho biet, s song lai toan phan van cha hoan tat. Trong tnh trang thanh luyen ("Luyen toi") v khong con than xac na, nen linh hon luc o mi thay c s bat lc cua mnh trong viec t thanh luyen. Tnh trang khong con than xac o va niem khat vong c song lai phan xac lam cho linh hon lai cang au kho hn. Linh hon cua nhng ngi a c chiem ngng Chua th c tran ay vinh phuc Chua. Nhng nhng linh hon ay van khao khat c song lai, khong phai v mnh thieu thon, nhng v c ket hp vi Chua tham sau hn, nen cac linh hon ay mong cho nc Ngai tr en, nc o se hoan tat trong cuoc chien thang ke thu cuoi cung la s chet (xem: 1Cr 15,27) nghia la trong s song lai cua ke chet.

Nhng linh hon c ket hp vi c Kito trong niem vinh phuc (cac "Thanh tren tang tri") se cong tac khong ngng vi Ngai trong viec xay dng than the Ngai, e cu o nhan loai. Khat vong c song lai phan xac cua cac linh hon khong phai la niem hy vong vao viec ca nhan mnh se c hanh phuc hn. a c chiem ngng Chua hang song, th con at en cai g hn na ay? Cac linh hon khong hy vong vao s song lai ac biet, nhng vao "s song lai than xac", nghia la vao viec hoan tat cai a bat au dt khoat qua s song lai cua Chua Giesu. Cac linh hon hy vong vng quoc cu o cua c Kito se c thiet lap toan ven. Ch khi nao tat ca a tung phuc c Kito va khi Ngai a pha huy tat ca quyen nang va bao lc (xem: 1Cr 15,24), th luc o s song lai cua c Kito mi thc s toan thang vnh vien trong viec song lai cua tat ca nhng loai co xng tht. Nghia la ch khi nao "Thien Chua tr nen tat ca trong moi s" (1Cr 15,28). o la ieu cac Thanh tren tri khao khat; o cung chnh la s song lai cua cac Ngai. Khi chung ta cau xin cho nc Chua tr en, la chung ta cung cau xin cho viec o.

KHAT VONG CUA MOI LOAI THU TAO

Tn ieu "song lai phan xac" a dan a chung ta vao trung tam cua toan bo niem tin va niem hy vong Kito giao. Ch trong cai toan bo nay ma moi tn ieu mi c sang sua va co y nghia. Chung ta hay tom lai nhng iem quan trong, ma chung ta va co gang ban qua mot cach n s ngheo nan tren.

Khi iem va chung cuc a gap nhau. c tin vao Chua Sang Tao la ieu kien e tin vao s song lai. Ngai a tao dng vu tru va trong vu tru la con ngi vi hon va xac, a tao dng lam sao, e ho co the c tham d vao s song cua Ngai. Ngay ca than xac mau chet cua chung ta cung a c dng nen e c song i i.

S song lai cua c Kito la khi iem cho viec song lai cua moi ke chet. S song lai o se la chien thang dt khoat tren s chet. Chien thang nay a c quyet nh dt khoat nh s song lai cua c Kito. "Toan thang a dap vui s chet. T than i, chien thang cua ngi au? T than i, on vot cua ngi au?" (1Cr 15,54-55). Tat ca chung ta con phai "ch i" cho ti ngay chien thang nay c cong khai, khi c Kito tai giang va khi moi ke chet song lai.

Khoang cach gia bien co c Kito song lai va cuoc song lai cua ke chet la mot khoang thi gian i ch lau dai lch s. Tat ca chung ta, du la l hanh tren ng dng the hay la a an ngh, mot cach nao o eu con ang trong "tnh trang i ch"; tuy "tnh trang" trong Giao Hoi (ang l hanh, con thanh luyen hay a vinh hien) ma khac biet nhau. Nhng can ban van la cung i ch va cung hy vong mot ngay nao o vng quoc c Kito se c hoan tat.

Ch khi nao c Kito thong tr toan dien, th luc o than the Ngai trong moi chi the mi c tron ven. Chung ta tuyen xng c tin chung ta ve viec ke chet song lai. Nghia la qua o chung ta cung tuyen xng: Chung ta "ang mong i niem hy vong hong phuc va ngay tr lai cua c Giesu Kito, ang Cu Chuoc chung ta". [39] S tr lai nay se la s song lai vinh quang cua chung ta - c g song lai e song ch khong phai e b luan phat! (xem: Ga 5,29) - va la khat vong cua moi loai thu tao.

 

Joses Vu xuan Huyen chuyen ng

 


[1] De resurrectione carnis 1 (PL 2, 795B).

[2] Enarrationes in Psalmos 88, II, 5 (CCL 39, 1237, 56-65).

[3] Kinh Tin Knh nay la ban tuyen tn cua C Constantinop (381) ve Thien Chua Ba Ngoi, nham chong lai lac thuyet muon choi bo Thien tnh cua Ngoi Ba. Qua tuyen tn nay C Constantinop a bo tuc tuyen tn cua C Nicea (325) la tuyen tn nham chong lai lac thuyet Ario muon choi bo Thien tnh cua Ngoi Hai - Ghi chu cua ngi dch.

[4] Xem them bai viet cua G. Kretschmar, Auferstehung des Fleisches. Zur Fruehgeschichte einer theologischen Lehrformel, trong: Leben angesichts des Todes. Beitraege zum theologischen Problem des Todes. ac pham mng sinh nhat th 60 cua Helmut Thielecke. Tuebingen 1968, tr. 101-137

[5] Ibid. tr. 108.

[6] K. Schubert, Jesus im Lichte der Religionsgeschichte des Judentums. Wien 1973, tr. 170.

[7] Ibid. tr. 183t.

[8] Trong nen van chng T Te co thi a thay co quan niem cho rang cai chet se tach ri than xac vi linh hon. Cung theo o, song lai la luc tai hp gia than xac vi linh hon; xem them: K. Schubert, Die Entwicklung der Auferstehungslehre von der nachexilischen bis zur fruehrabbinischen Zeit, trong: Biblische Zeitschrift 16 (1962), tr. 177-214.

[9] Nhng t cha thong dung se kem tieng Phap hoac Latinh trong ngoac n. Gnosticisme bi tieng Hy Lap "gnosis" (dt): tri thc, s nhan biet. Thuyet nay thnh hanh vao khoang the ky 1-4, co nhieu khuynh hng khac nhau, nhng cung mot iem chung khi cho rang: Sau khi trieu than sa nga, "vng quoc s sang" a b pha huy, trong vu tru va trong moi linh hon ch con lai nhng tia sang nho. Thi canh chung, nh thuyet nay lan rong, ma cac tia sang ay se hop lai ma tai lap "vng quoc anh sang" cu. Thuyet co ten "Gnosis" v chu trng: Nh "nhan biet" ma con ngi c cu roi.- Ghi chu cua ngi dch.

[10] ipsissima verba: Trong nganh chu giai J. Jeremias (*1900, Tin Lanh c) a khi cong i tm trong Tan c au la li ch thc cua Chua Giesu gia nhng li, ma theo ong, do ngi ta them vao. - Ghi chu cua ngi dch.

[11] xem them: A. Feuillet, "Les trois grandes propheties de la Passion et de la Resurrection des evangiles synoptiques, I: Authenticite substantielle et circonstances historiques des propheties", in: Revue Thomiste 67 (1967), tr. 533-560.

[12] H. Schuermann a viet rat kha trong cuon sach cua ong, nhan e la Gottes Reich - Jesu Geschick. Jesu ureigener Tod im Lichte seiner Basileia-Verkuendigung. Freiburg 1983.

[13] Xem phan th hai bai bao cua A. Feuillet, Signification doctrinale des propheties, trong: Revue Thomiste 68 (1968), tr. 41-74, cho nay tr. 61.

[14] Xin phep gii thieu li chu giai tuyet vi ve oan nay cua J.-M.van Cangh va M. van Esbroeck, La primaute der Pierre (Mt 16, 16-19) et son contexte judaique, trong: Revue Thomiste de Louvain 11 (1980), tr. 310-324.

[15] Cong ong Vaticano II, Hien che tn ly ve Giao Hoi Lumen Gentium, 48, 2.

[16] Tan c e lai nhieu cau tien bao viec Chua se tr lai trong mot thi gian rat gan (xem: Mt 10,23; 16,28; Mc 13,9-13; 13,30-32; Lc 21,12-19...) Va trong thc te, cac giao oan s khai cung a song trong s non nao ch i nay. Nhng Giao Hoi a trai qua gan 2.000 nam roi. V the, co nhieu tac gia cho rang: Chua Giesu b lam (sic!) ve iem nay. ay la mot trong nhng van e gai goc nhat cua nganh chu giai. - Ghi chu cua ngi dch.

[17] Xem them bai viet rat hay cua E. Keller, Eucharistie und Parusie. Liturgie- und theologiegeschichtliche Untersuchungen zur eschatologischen Dimension der Eucharistie. Fribourg 1989, tr. 14-17.

[18] Ve nhng li hien tai lien he ti s song lai nay xin xem J. Kremmer, o. c. tr. 137-157.

[19] Xem them Chr. Schoenborn, Existenz im Uebergang. Pilgerschaft, Reinkarnation, Vergoettlichung. Einseideln-Trier 1987.

[20] Cl.-H. Hunziger, Die Hoffnung angesichts des Todes im Wandel der paulinischen Aussagen, trong: Leben angesichts des Todes, o. c., tr. 69-88, cho nay tr. 86, chu thch 32.

[21] Tuyen tn cua Cong ong Laterano VI nam 1215 (DS 801).

[22] Ve nhng van e can ban cua thuyet nay hien nay xin xem P. Koslowski (xb.), Gnosis und Mystik in der Gesichichte der Philosophie. Zuerich-Muenchen 1988.

[23] Irene thanh Lyon, Adversus haereses V, 31, 2 (BKV II, tr. 234t.)

[24] Magala la ten a danh, khong phai ten ngi: Mai e Lien, Madeleine, Magdalena nh thng hieu lam. Thanh pho ng phu nay nam b ho Genesareth/ Tiberiat, pha Tay Bac. T Nazaret xuong Capharnaum bat buoc Chua Giesu phai i ngang qua thanh pho nay. - Ghi chu cua ngi dch.

[25] Cuoc tranh luan nay a c trnh bay chnh xac do Y. de Andia, Homo vivens. Incorruptibilite et divinisation de l'homme chez Irenee de Lyon. Paris 1986

[26] Ireneo thanh Lyon, Adversus haereses V, 3, 3, ban dch cua H. U. von Balthasar, trong: Irenaeus, Geduld des Reifens. Einsiedel 1965, tr. 94.

der Gegenwart. Darmstadt (2) 1989.

[27] Ibid. V, 9, 4 (trong sach cua Balthasar tr. 96).

[28] Ibid. V, 3. 2 (trong sach cua Balthasar, tr. 93).

[29] Papyrus Der Balyzeh, trch dan theo G. Kretschmar, o. c., tr. 104.

[30] Ibid

[31]  Kinh nguyen Thanh The IV.

[32] Xem phan trnh bay trong Canh chung hoc cua C. Pozo, Teologa del mas alla (B. A. C. 282). Madrid 1980, tr. 463-537.

[33] Xem them bai viet cua Markus Schulz SAC cung trong so bao (IKathZ) nay.

[34] Xem J. Seifert, Das Leib-Seele- Problem. Ein systematisch-kritischer Beitrag zur philosophischen Diskussion

[35] Xem: H. Sonnemans, Seele. Unsterblichkeit - Auferstehung. Zur griechischen und christlichen Anthopologie und Eschatologie. Freiburg 1984.

[36] Phan nao nh the trong W. Breuning (xb.), Seele. Problembegriff christlicher Eschatologie (QD 109).

Freiburg 1989.

[37] DS 1000-1001

[38] Xem: Cong ong Vaticano II, Hien che tn ly ve Giao Hoi Lumen Gentium, 49; xem them: Chr. Schoenborn, Die Communio der drei kichlichen Staende, cung trong tap ch nay so 17 (1988), tr. 8-20.

[39] Li tiep noi kinh Lay Cha trong Thanh Le: "expectantes beatam spem et adventum Salvatoris nostri Jesu Christi".